Monday, August 24, 2020

Auxilium Pharmaceutical Corporation Research Paper

Auxilium Pharmaceutical Corporation - Research Paper Example Corresponding to the investigation the organization which has been chosen is Auxilium Pharmaceutical, a firm that has been doing business since 1999. The firm’s basic stocks are exchanged openly in NASDAQ under the image AUXL. The statement of purpose of the organization is: â€Å"To improve the lives of patients all through the world by quickly and effectively recognizing, creating and commercializing inventive claim to fame biopharmaceutical products†. The firm’s items focus on the accompanying medicinal services markets: hand and plastic specialists, endocrinologist, rheumatologists, urologists, and essential consideration doctors. The two top selling brands the organization has are Testim and Xiaflex. The estimations of the organization incorporate respectability, quality, development, collaboration, and result arranged. In monetary year 2010 Auxilium Pharmaceutical produced $211 million in incomes. The association has 565 workers. The pharmaceutical business is one of the biggest and most remarkable enterprises on the planet with 2010 worldwide deals of $875 billion. The United States has the most costly medicinal services framework on the planet. One of the difficulties that U.S. social insurance organizations face when attempting to build up another medication is that it requires some investment and cash to put up another medication for sale to the public. During the most recent five years the expenses of offering another medication for sale to the public have gone up from $800 million to $1.3 billion. One of the essential reasons organizations get long patent security is to permit organizations adequate opportunity to recuperate its speculation and make a sensible benefit. All the expenses over the whole human services framework in the United States are on the ascent. The clinical spending per capita in the United States is twice as high as other created nations, for example, the individuals from the European Union. In 2009 the Unit ed States burn through $7,410 in human services spending per capita, while Europe in a similar period spend just burn through $3,615. Quality isn't the fundamental issue that’s driving the expenses up since the Europeans get equivalent if worse social insurance than American residents. The expense of instruction might be a factor that is influencing the pay scales for specialists in the United States. Most clinical understudies obtain over $250,000 in understudy advances to fund their instruction. When they begin rehearsing specialists are looking for more significant compensations than at any other time. Medications are getting increasingly costly because of higher advancement expenses and clinical plans are charging cosmic yearly charges in examination with the past. In 2009 the normal expense of family human services plan was $13,375. Clinical protection plan expansion expanded 5% in examination with 2008. Because of the increasing expense of clinical protection the measur e of Americans that are uninsured has expanded to more than 50 million. This damages the deals of pharmaceutical organizations in light of the fact that uninsured residents ordinarily can't stand to pay for their doctor prescribed medications in real money installments. Auxilium Pharmaceutical has numerous qualities that are helping the organization remain serious. The firm has develop a decent brand an incentive during its 13 years working in the business. During 2010 the organization had strong deals aftereffects of $211.4 million which speak to an expansion of 29% in examination with the earlier year.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Hofstedes Culture Work Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Hofstedes Culture Work - Case Study Example This absence to the presence of 'culture' and the mutual essential suppositions that joins a social gathering regularly prompts individuals from that gathering turning out to be confounded or disturbed when circumstances emerge which are strange to their arrangement of standards and desires. Hofstede has directed an examination in which he looked into certain workers of Germany's E.ON in Spain. Notwithstanding, Hofstede's E.ON poll was not intended for social examinations however for hierarchical turn of events. Representatives gave self-report reactions to around 160 things which Hofstede broke down with creativity; he thought about scores not for people yet between nations, which he called a biological examination. He revealed and investigated four components of culture: Independence versus Collectivism: Independence - an inclination for a freely weave social structure in the public arena, in which people should deal with themselves and close family's just; instead of Collectivism - an inclination for a closely knit social framework... Manliness versus Femininity: Manliness - an inclination for accomplishment, gallantry, assertivene... iduals should deal with themselves and close family's just; instead of Collectivism - an inclination for a closely knit social framework... Manliness versus Femininity: Manliness - an inclination for accomplishment, gallantry, emphaticness, and material achievement; rather than Femininity - an inclination for connections, unobtrusiveness, thinking about the feeble, and the personal satisfaction Vulnerability Avoidance: how much citizenry feel awkward with vulnerability and equivocalness (Hofstede, 1983, 1991) Hofstede has put forth irregular attempts to expand the theoretical idea of his measurements. Such augmentations have additionally been made by others, for example, Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997). There is as of now significant research focusing on these measurements, particularly with respect to independence and cooperation. Independence versus Collectivism Our feeling of character is frequently reliant, to a huge degree, on our feeling of having a place with and connection with a specific gathering - be it family, standing, group, clan or class. Be that as it may, in individualistic nations, substantially more accentuation is put on the acknowledgment of the person. Autonomy is incredibly esteemed and social bonds between individuals will in general be moderately free and adaptable. This is especially clear in the dynamic procedure as choices will in general be made by people in places of power instead of by an advisory group or gathering. Then again, collectivistic nations are fundamentally arranged towards shared objectives and goals and more worth is put on bunch interests. In collectivistic nations, representatives regularly anticipate that the association should ensure their inclinations by method of giving them proficient turn of events, benefits and long haul security inside the association. Obviously

Tuesday, July 21, 2020

College Application Timeline for High School Seniors

College Application Timeline for High School Seniors (1) Can you believe that the time to apply to college has finally come? Even though it might seem like the days of pep rallies and prom will last forever, you’ll be off to somewhere new before you know it. Applying to college can be stressful, but staying on top of important dates and deadlines will make things a lot easier. Check out the timeline below to start off senior year and the college admissions process on the right foot! If you’re assigned any papers during your senior year, you can count on EasyBib citing tools for help generating an MLA format citation, an APA format title page, or a Chicago citation. The general dates below were true at the time this article was written. To obtain up-to-date and specific deadlines, be sure to visit the website of anything that interests you. Late summer/early fall (Aug-Oct) As you go into your senior year, you should have finalized a list of colleges that interest you. You might want to apply to schools that will likely accept you, as well as schools that have stricter admissions policies. It’s important that you’re mindful of all of the requirements of your preferred schools, including different standardized tests or recommendation letters. Dates and deadlines: August 1st: The Common Application opens, along with many other schools’ applications for admissions online. End of September: Have at least two teachers or community members set to write you a letter of recommendation. End of September/Early October: Retake any standardized tests to boost your scores, including the SAT, ACT, or SAT subject tests. October 1st: The Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA ®) opens, which allows you to apply for need-based financial aid for college. Ask a school guidance counselor if you need financial help with applications and would like a fee waiver. Mid-to-late fall (Oct-Nov) After you’ve figured out what schools you like, it is a good idea to start working on your supplemental essays and overall application. If you like a particular school a lot, consider applying to an early action or early decision program that will let you know your admissions decision sooner. Most schools have scholarship programs for merit or need, too, so do a little investigating to see if you’re eligible and map out the dates in your planner. Tip: Have a friend, parent, or teacher look through your essay and application before you send it off. Running your essay through a grammar or spell check can also you spot typos before it’s too late. Dates and deadlines: October: Start looking for university-specific scholarship programs. October/November: Check out national scholarship programs like Coca-Cola Scholars, Gates Scholars, or Jack Kent Cooke that have deadlines in the fall. November 1st: Most universities have early acceptance program deadlines on this day. November: Start exploring community or field-specific scholarships and considering your financial needs. There are even apps like Scholly to help with this! Winter (Jan-Feb) Now that you’ve got most of your application material submitted, you can focus on finding external scholarships and sending any mid-year reports that your preferred schools require. Consider signing up for an alumni interview or doing a second tour if you find out that you have been accepted. Dates and deadlines: January 1st: Most universities have regular admissions deadlines on this day. January/February: Schools that require a CSS profile have varying deadlines. Spring (Mar-May) At this point in your senior year, you’ve almost made it! You’ll be walking in your cap and gown in no time at all. Now, all that is left is to make your final decisions and tell your schools what you decide. You should feel a massive load off of your shoulders at this point. Chin up, though, and make it through senior year strong! Remember, colleges will look at your grades from your last semester of high school. Dates and deadlines: March/April: Most universities will release their admissions decisions. March/April: Start preparing for AP, IB, or final examinations. April: Send supplemental materials to any colleges that have waitlisted you. May 1: Most schools have their decision deadline. Give yourself a big pat on the back for making it this far! While this process of applying to colleges can feel full of emotions, keeping on a schedule and being organized will calm your nerves and make you feel like you’re on top of it. While the guidelines change from school to school, keep this as your general guide for the yearâ€" and best of luck! Searching for inspiration? EasyBib has a resource with thought-provoking Martin Luther King Jr quotes, Abraham Lincoln facts, Dr. Seuss quotes, and more!

Friday, May 22, 2020

Guerilla Warfare Essay - 655 Words

Guerrilla Warfare The term guerrilla (Spanish, â€Å"little war†) originated in the early 19th century during the Peninsular war when, after the defeat of Spain’s regular forces, Spanish irregulars and civilians rose up against the French occupying forces. The practice of guerrilla warfare, however, dates from antiquity; for example, the Bible tells of the Israelite conquest of Canaan, led by Joshua, involving harassment and ambush of the enemy. Later Jewish resistance to foreign rule was expressed in the series of fierce guerrilla operations against the Romans in the 1st century AD; led by the Zealot sect, this revolt was climaxed by the seizure of Masada and the massacre of the Roman garrison there in AD66. Lacking the numerical strength†¦show more content†¦Guerrilla warfare has figured prominently in the history of North and South America, from the slave revolts against the Portuguese and Dutch in Brazil in the 17th century to the ranger raids behind Union lines led by the Confederate solider John Singleton Mosby during the American Civil War. In early 19th century Latin America, guerrilla actions such as those led by the South American patriot Simon Bolivar and the Mexican revolutionary Miguel Hidalgo Costilla were instrumental in throwing off the Spanish yoke. In its most general sense, guerrilla tactics involves the combination of methods used to carry out any action. Urban guerrillas wage guerrilla warfare and psychological warfare. There are five major components to guerrilla tactics: a.The specific nature of the situation; b.Designing the action to meet the specific nature of the situation; c.The objective; d.The type of action designed to meet the objective; and, e.The method for carrying out that action. Urban guerrilla tactics embody the following features: (this is how one man refers to guerilla warfare in his country)a.They are aggressive and offensive in nature. Defense means death for us. Since our firepower, resources, and manpower cannot match that of the enemy, we cannot defend ourselves against an offensive or a coordinated attack made by the quot;guerrillas.quot; So our tactics must vary, and can never be permanent, and that isShow MoreRelatedThe Tenet Of Guerilla Warfare1968 Words   |  8 PagesThe first tenet of guerilla warfare is to disregard the strategies that typically define conflicts. Disposing of these tactics, and thinking in a lateral direction, can afford a tactical advantage over a more cumbersome and habitual foe. This competitive advantage can often mean the difference between victory and defeat, and can be necessary to establish dominance within the area of conflict. Jay Conrad Levinson (2007) was the first to directly apply these concepts to the busin ess world with aRead MoreGuerilla Warfare in the Vietnam War620 Words   |  3 PagesA small country such as North Vietnam was able to win a war against a superpower like the United States of America, through, namely, tactics – such as Guerrilla Warfare -, the ignorance of their enemy, the attitude of the South Vietnamese, as well as a strong leader such as Ho Chi Minh. The Vietnam War was a major conflict (of the Cold War) which lasted from 1959 to 1975 , with US involvement from 1964 to 1973 . US reasons for their involvement in the war was their fear of â€Å"The Domino Effect† -Read MoreThe Failure Of Guerilla Warfare Methods During The Vietnam War1369 Words   |  6 Pages(1350)The Failure of Guerilla Warfare Methods in the Vietnam War: An Analysis of the Causality of the â€Å"Counter Insurgency† Governmental Policies and the Presidential Campaign of 1968 This colloquium will define the connection between various sources related to the â€Å"counter insurgency† policies of the American government throughout the 1960s that caused a slow escalation of the Vietnam War in the fight against communist expansion in Southeast Asia. The Campaign of 1968 defines the legacy of presidentRead MoreEssay about Spanish Resistance to Napoleon1703 Words   |  7 Pageswere using a new military strategy called guerilla warfare, one that Napoleon had no experience against. Guerilla warfare is the use of unconventional war tactics, such as ambush and sabotage, coined by the Spanish rebellion to Napoleon Bonaparte, resulting in an uprising that even he couldn’t put to rest. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;To understand why these tactics were so effective, you must first understand the tactics themselves. Before guerilla warfare was popularized, war was mainly a head-to-headRead MoreGeography : History And Geography1325 Words   |  6 Pagesof knowing the land and how to maneuver with it. For this country, physical geography added a natural advantage to defending their land. Guerilla warfare capitalizes these traits and uses them for an advantage; The Revolutionary War was ended at Yorktown after a guerrilla attack. was won by using guerilla tactics. In the book The Art of War, guerrilla warfare was mentioned; Chinese fighters did not create the technique, but it was also used by nomadic tribes centuries before. In his book, BattlefieldsRead MoreThe Warfare Of The Soviet Union725 Words   |  3 Pagesregional hegemon, it supported a an Islamic fundamentalist group named the Taliban, and along with weapon support and logistics. As well as discussing the va rious guerilla tactics utilized and discussed by the class through the readings such as Mao Zedong. I will also elaborate on the success and the dependency of the various guerilla tactics used and how fundamental it was in their victory against a conventional army (Soviet Union), and the outcome would not have. As well as the success of theRead MoreGray Ghosts of the Confederacy: Guerrilla Warfare in the West 1861-1865.1464 Words   |  6 PagesBrownlee, Richard S. Gray Ghosts of the Confederacy: Guerrilla Warfare in the West 1861-1865. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1986. When the Civil War started many people of this nation were not expecting the chaos, destruction, and they certainly did not expect the war to last so long. The history of the guerrilla warfare began shortly before the start of the Civil War and lasted a few years after the war. The guerrillas dominated Missouri to such an extent that the Union armyRead MoreWeapons and Tactics of WWI and WWII765 Words   |  3 Pagesthey used them against the french and it definitely worked. One of the main things that was used was aircraft. They took new ideas and turned them into weapons and new ways to get around. With the weapons came the tactics to World War One. The main warfare tactic was defensive trenches. People made many trenches and hid in them. But they also stored weapons and fought against people. They would shoot from inside the trenches, but then some people would get out and get closer to kill the enemy betterRead MoreThrough Separate Publications, Geoffrey Parker And Victor1689 Words   |  7 Pagestrue Western Way of War. Both the principal foundations by Parker and the prominent element by Hanson, while insightful, only delineate a single type of warfare that was used by the armies of Europe and the United States, however they fail to capitalize on the basis of their argument because neither man legitimately compares that type of warfare to any other method of fighting that was used, or is currently used, by other nations around the world. Hence, there is no Western Way of War; there isRead MoreEssay on Hybrid Warfare or Asymmetric Warfare?1235 Words   |  5 PagesHybrid Warfare or Asymmetric Warfare? To have a discussion on hybrid warfare, we need to have a clear idea of what are the differences between conventional and hybrid warfare are. Conventional warfare is a nonnuclear conflict with rules of engagement formed by an agreement or compact. These rules for conventional warfare are spelled out by the Law of War and cover acceptable weapons, treatment of prisoners, torture, surrender, and much more. Unconventional is best described as guerilla and covert

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Chemical Engineering My Passion Since High School

Chemical engineering has been my passion since high school. Having dad who is an engineer clearly backs up my interest in the field of engineering although my dad pursued a different field which is mechanical engineering. I always admired to be an engineer having my dad as role model. I did not know what to pursue till I got to high school when I was able to delineate my strengths. From an exemplary performance I could tell chemical engineering is the path I need to pursue. Chemical engineering has been my passion since high school. Chemical engineering focuses more on experimenting the interaction of chemicals using the knowledge of mathematics and chemistry in order to come up with products that can solve problems in a society. If we†¦show more content†¦Besides performance, I am thrilled by the amazing fundamental facts of science especially the interaction of chemical and material, research and experimentation to yield products that can benefit the society. I am confident in pursuing chemical engineering because I will pursue what I have loved and been competent in since I was young till now. Chemical engineering application has a broad range of fields of specialization ranging around thirty. Some of the fields in chemical engineering that one can specialize in are; engineering and polymer science, industrial biotechnology/pharmaceutical process and pollution control (Herbert Wertheim college of engineering, n.d.). My main interest and what I would love to specialize in is pharmaceutical processes and, manufacturing. Pharmaceutical process and manufacture deals with manufacturing if drugs, conducting research and experiment to develop new drugs and also the actual process of manufacturing by determining the quantities of combination. My goal in specializing in pharmaceutical process and manufacture is to contribute to innovation and improvement of drugs. I would love to use the knowledge I have acquired to take part in inventions and research in drugs. This is inspired by the fact that there are illnesses that have no cure, other illnesses have no cure but vaccination could help individual cope with such ailments. From what I would love to specialize in, my day responsibilities will revolve around research development

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Reading and Students with Mental Retardation Free Essays

Reading proficiency is considered a top priority in education, and a skill with myriad implications for learning and achievement in other areas. Yet in the past, literacy rarely has been emphasized for students with mental retardation. With interventions that recognize the importance of literacy for all students, students with mental retardation can build reading skills that can lead to new interests, increased competencies, and greater independence. We will write a custom essay sample on Reading and Students with Mental Retardation or any similar topic only for you Order Now Understanding the characteristics of students with mental retardation is an important step toward the development of effective instruction and appropriate assessment. This paper is intended to begin a discussion of the issues surrounding reading and students with mental retardation; it is not intended to be a comprehensive research review. The paper provides: (1) an overview of the characteristics of students with mental retardation, (2) a description of common approaches to reading instruction, and (3) assessment approaches and issues that surround the assessment of reading for students with mental retardation. The paper is one of several brief papers developed to contribute to the process of conducting research and developing accessible reading assessments for students with disabilities. Creating accessible reading assessments based on accepted definitions of reading and proficiencies of reading requires knowledge of the issues specific to each disability and how they affect reading and the assessment of reading. The information in these papers was obtained through a broad review of literature and Web sites of national agencies and organizations, along with input and feedback from professionals in the disability areas. Each paper is intended as a first step to facilitate discussions that include individuals who do not know the disability, in this case mental retardation, and those who may know the disability but have not considered the interaction of the disability with reading or the assessment of reading through statewide testing. Students with Mental Retardation More than 600,000 students 6-21 years of age in the United States received special education services for mental retardation during the 2000-2001 school year, comprising about 11% of all students with disabilities in U. S. schools (U. S. Department of Education, 2002). The causes of mental retardation in children vary widely, including fetal alcohol syndrome, genetic disorders like Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome, environmental factors like lead poisoning, or diseases such as meningitis. The American Association on Mental Retardation (2002) defines mental retardation as a â€Å"disability characterized by significant limitations bo th in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. For many years students with mental retardation were identified solely using intelligence testing. IQ levels among students labeled as mentally retarded can vary from 20-25 (profound mental retardation) to 50-75 (mild mental retardation); according to the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000), 85 percent of individuals with mental retardation have mild mental retardation. It has been estimated that 28,056 K-12 English language learners (ELLs) received special education services for mental retardation in 2001-2002. Thus, approximately 7. % of school-age ELLs with disabilities were identified with mental retardation (Zehler, Fleischman, Hopstock, Pendzick, Stephenson, 2003). The challenge of learning English and having a disability adds another level of complexity to learning to read and demonstrate reading achievement (Mueller Markowitz, 2004). Similar to other special education categories, but perhaps more unexpectedly, the criteria for students to be eligible for the mental retardation label varies from state to state (Beirne-Smith, Ittenbach, Patton, 1998). The Twenty-Fourth Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) reported that poor students were 1. 5 times more likely to be referred to special education; it noted significantly lower cognitive development and lower achievement among this population than among non-poor students. The report speculated on causes from lead poisoning to parent education level, but some advocates have argued that poor students, and particularly poor minority students, have been over-identified in the mild mental retardation category and misplaced in special education classrooms (Losen, 2002). The term â€Å"mental retardation† is widely used and coded into federal law, but the term remains the subject of considerable controversy. Some advocacy groups and professional associations argue that the negative stigma of the term mental retardation could be avoided by using less loaded language. The ARC of the United States, one of the country’s largest advocacy organizations for people with mental retardation, eschews the term mental retardation in its mission statement (The ARC, 2004) in favor of â€Å"cognitive, intellectual, and developmental disabilities. In 2004, Special Olympics updated its terminology from â€Å"mental retardation† to â€Å"intellectual disabilities† (see the Language Guide under â€Å"About Us,† then â€Å"Information about Intellectual Disabilities† at www. specialolympics. org). In this paper we use the term â€Å"mental retardation† as a legal term defined by IDEA, while cognizant of this significant s hift in terminology. Characteristics of students with mental retardation vary widely. Students with mental retardation may have difficulty with expressive language, poor short-term memory, low level meta-cognition skills, and poor use of logic and organization. Some students who are labeled as mentally retarded also have motor difficulties that can affect their handwriting or their ability to hold reading material steadily (Rizopoulos Wolpert, 2004). Students with mental retardation, like all students, demonstrate wide variation in strengths, weaknesses, interests, and motivation, all of which should be reflected in each student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP). Traditionally, special educators have de-emphasized literacy, particularly for students with moderate to severe mental retardation, in favor of functional, social, or motor skills (Kliewer Biklen, 2001). Many people with mental retardation read below their projected capabilities, and both general and special education teacher education textbooks are marked by a scarcity of information on academic characteristics, assessment procedures, and instruction in literacy for students with mental retardation. Only recently have educators begun to recognize the value of reading and writing skills for all students, including those with severe mental retardation (Katims, 2000). Since school systems have begun to include students with moderate to severe mental retardation in assessments (IDEA, 1997, 2004) and accountability (NCLB, 2001), and thus also included in more academic instruction, these students have been achieving at much higher and more complex levels than researchers, practitioners, and even advocates expected (see Moore-Lamminen Olsen, 2005). This powerful evidence has forced educational professionals to revisit long-held assumptions about the benefits of academic instruction for all children, and is generating provocative reading research on new, rigorous approaches to reading instruction for students with mental retardation (e. g. , Reading, Writing, Math, and Science for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities, Diane Browder, PI). Instruction for Students with Mental Retardation The focus in education for students with mental retardation has shifted from an emphasis on providing services related to placement, such as disability specific classrooms or special schools, to providing individualized supports to help every student access the general curriculum in an inclusive classroom setting. American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), a lead advocate of the â€Å"supports model,† emphasized in its 2002 definition of mental retardation that the effects of mental retardation can be ameliorated with personalized supports. This shift in thinking correlates with an increased emphasis on inclusionary and mainstream education for students with mental retardation, giving these students access to a challenging and interesting general curriculum and an integrated social environment. IDEA 1997 emphasized that students with disabilities must have access to the same challenging content taught to all students; this was reiterated and strengthened in IDEA 2004. Many special education researchers and advocates argue that holding students with disabilities, including mental retardation, to the same high expectations as all students will improve learning and educational outcomes for these students (McGrew Evans, 2004). Approaches to teaching reading to students with mental retardation fall broadly into two categories. One broad category is the traditional or direct instruction approach, which teaches reading as distinct subsets of skills such as phonics and sight word recognition (Rizopoulos Wolpert, 2004). The traditional approach is based on a behaviorist model, emphasizing drill and practice of a linear set of literacy skills. The second approach is a progressive, holistic approach that teaches comprehension and critical thinking along with phonological awareness, decoding, vocabulary, and reading for enjoyment (Katims, 2000). Each of these approaches has had support with some students with mental retardation and for various purposes (Browder Xin, 1998; Cunningham, 1999; Driscoll Kemp, 1996; Hendricks, Katims, Carr, 1999; Joseph McCachran, 2003; Katims, 2000; Moni Jobling, 2000). Assistive technology and technology increasingly have become important supports for reading-related instruction and reading for students with mental retardation. For example, Erickson and Koppenhaver (1995) found that computer and light technology can give students with severe mental retardation the supports they need to build communication skills. Continued interest in the literacy outcomes of students with mental retardation and supporting research has blossomed in the past few years, and is most likely to be a productive area for the reading futures of students with mental retardation (Beukelman Mirenda, 2005; Erickson, Clendon, Abraham, Roy, Van de Karr, 2005; Sturm, Erickson, Yoder, 2003). In their review of literacy approaches for adolescents with developmental delays, Rizopoulos and Wolpert (2004) suggested that both traditional and progressive approaches to literacy instruction can be appropriate for certain students. Recent research by Diane Browder looks closely at the assumption that students with the most severe mental retardation benefit only from functional approaches to literacy. Browder and Algozzine argue more research is needed to understand how students with severe mental retardation might benefit from explicit instruction in decoding and comprehension skills (Browder Algozzine, draft). Assessment of Students with Mental Retardation Most students with mental retardation participate in the same large-scale reading assessments as all students. While not all students with mental retardation will require supports or accommodations on large-scale assessments, these students have access to the same accommodations that other students with disabilities receive. Whether a student will require extra time on tests, large print, read-aloud directions, alternative setting accommodations, or other supports to demonstrate maximum proficiency depends on the individual strengths and weaknesses of each student. The most common accommodations used for students with mental retardation include breaking tasks into smaller steps, providing read aloud directions or questions, and visual cues (such as arrows, stickers, or stop signs, highlighting of key words or verbs, or supplementing text with pictures). Other accommodations range from encouraging students to stay on task and oral directions accompanied by written directions, to noise buffers and adaptive furniture (Clapper, Morse, Lazarus, Thompson, Thurlow, 2005). Some students with the most significant cognitive disabilities who are unable to participate in large-scale assessments even with accommodations are eligible to take alternate assessments. All alternate assessments are aligned to grade-level academic content standards, but they can be based on either grade level achievement standards or alternate achievement standards. The students who may participate in alternate assessments on grade level achievement standards may need accommodations not available on general assessments or need different formats or contexts to demonstrate grade-level proficiency (National Center on Educational Outcomes Web site, 2005). Students with the most significant cognitive disabilities can demonstrate proficiency on an alternate achievement standard. Alternate assessments should promote access to the general curriculum and reflect professional judgment of the highest achievement standard possible for each individual student. Summary The intent of this brief paper is to highlight issues surrounding reading and students with mental retardation. While not a comprehensive review, it is intended to give enough of a sense of the characteristics of the students, general instructional approaches used with them, and assessment approaches and issues to generate discussion about the possible ways in which more accessible assessments can be designed for those students who are proficient readers given their diagnosis of mental retardation. This paper is part of the background for research on accessible reading assessments conducted by the Partnership for Accessible Reading Assessments, and for discussions among collaborators on the National Accessible Reading Assessment Projects (NARAP). How to cite Reading and Students with Mental Retardation, Essays

Monday, April 27, 2020

MONKEYS ARE ALWAYS FUNNY Essays - Paul McLoone, Bob Dylan, A.M.

MONKEYS ARE ALWAYS FUNNY Bob Dylan sings about monkeys. Bob Dylan sings about monkeys doing a dance in one of his songs on Another Side of Bob Dylan. In the song, he asks his monkey to do the dog, and it winds up doing the cat, to which he replies, Funky Monkey. I think he was on drugs. Here's a story I wrote: On what would turn out to be the swampiest, most disgusting day of summer, the Cary First Presbyterian Church parishioners showed up at 9 a.m. for the Sunday service, only to discover that their beloved Reverend Harris, church leader for 35 years, was nowhere to be found. Where could he be? asked Mrs. Drake, who hadn't missed a Sunday service since 1963 (except for that one time she was in the city for a minor surgery). Mrs. Drake and her husband broke into the Reverend's house, directly behind the hefty brick church after they had knocked loudly several times, even on the windows. Meanwhile, the parishioners swarmed the empty lot, Fellowship Hall and choir loft, in starched white shirts and the leather shoes they reserved for Sundays. Mrs. Drake's daughter, age 14, complained that beggar weeds were stuck to her favorite pair of frilly socks. They were her favorite because a silky pink ribbon was woven through the lace, and her best friend Susie Kemeny had a pair too. It was not until noon of the same day, in 98 degree heat that Mr. Tweedy, the Fire Marshal and Sheriff, decided that something, something, must be done. So he tracked down Mark, the Reverend's delinquent nephew who was living with him at the time. Although Mark had not been to the Reverend's house in three days, everyone knew that he could be found at Munnegin's Bar on 13th Street, where his band often played. When was the last time you saw him, Mark? asked Mr. Tweedy. Well, I haven't really been back there in a few days cause I've been crashing at Darren here's place, you know. Mark gestured toward his unclean, unshaven friend who was dressed in mostly black, except for the red bandana punctuated with fluorescent green skulls, tied around his greasy brown (possibly blonde) hair. Darren affirmed that he had indeed let Mark crash there, by nodding and holding his beer high up in the air. Did he try to contact you at Darren's house, Mark? Umm... ... ... mmm... ... nope. Wait, Darren laughed, didn't he call that one night during Spinal Tap, you know, when it was on VH1 and they had edited out all the funny parts? Oh *censored*! Mark covered his mouth with a fresh pint of Icehouse. Yeah. That VH1 version really sucked. But do you remember the phone call? asked Mr. Tweedy, who was growing impatient with the two boys in their late twenties. Nope. That wasn't the Rev, that was a phone solicitor, remember? The two boys laughed, because they remembered how stoned they had been when the phone call was received, and they were surprised to have remembered any phone call at all. Mr. Tweedy left Mark and Darren at the bar, where they would remain until their performance that night at eight. They were waiting for their bass player, Killer, who was supposed to show up twenty minutes earlier, in order to get butt- wasted before the show. Mr. Tweedy's thoughts wandered, but not too far. Those boys are in need a good whipping, he thought. I don't know how the Reverend could handle that ungrateful slum of a boy. Good, God- fearing man, that's all that could handle an S.O.B. like that boy. It was time for lunch, and Tweedy stopped for a sandwich at Olga's Cuban sandwich shop, just a few blocks away. He ordered a Cuban on rye, hold the pork. Tweedy was lucky that he was so important to the town of Cary. Typically, only the trash in town ate at Olga's ( a Cuban family ran the place), but because he had to keep up with all walks of life in town, he could have his delicious sandwich and maintain his equally satisfying reputation. Cary, most society people thought, was too far north in Florida for any Cubans to raise a family. How could it possibly be hot enough for